For this question, I would like you to discuss the causes of the Civil War and how leaders tried to prevent war from breaking out in 1861.
Directions for Answering the Question:
Locating the Rubric and Your Grade:
Bossier Parish – Mediasite | Chapter 14 Lecture
In May of 1856 Republican Charles Sumner of Massachusetts took the floor to denounce the threat of slavery in
Kansas and to humiliate its supporters. In a speech titled “The Crime against Kansas,” Sumner ridiculed the honor
of the elderly South Carolina senator Andrew Butler. He compared Butler’s pro-slavery agenda towards Kansas
with the raping of a virgin. The next day Butler’s cousin, the South Carolina congressman Preston Brooks, nearly
killed Sumner on the Senate floor by beating him with a cane. Now, you would think that this would occasion
outrage from people. But Preston Brooks was re-elected by a landslide and wealthy white Southerners sent him
gold and silver canes so that he could do it again.
This was outrageous then and now. And it’s one thing for common people to come to blows over politics– it’s bad
but not necessarily surprising. It’s another thing for politicians, people whose careers based on being diplomatic,
to come to blows about something. So how the heck do we arrive at a point where even politicians were beating
on each other. By the 1850s, bitter feelings between Northerners and Southerners had intensified to such a
degree that people were feeling very uneasy about the future of the nation.
We’re going to try to answer four questions in this lecture. We’re going to ask, what events encourage the rise of
the Republican Party in the 1850s? How did the Civil War start, and how did people respond to its initiation? How
did Lincoln’s stance towards slavery changed during the war? And how did society change as a result of the Civil
War? In my last lecture, I discussed American expansion in the West, and I explained that the creation of new
states in the West forced people to create a new compromise about slavery.
And this was the Compromise of 1850. This compromise decided that California would be a free state, the south
would get a stronger fugitive slave law, and Utah, New Mexico would be decided through popular sovereignty. So
the state of California was decided, and we had a clear plan for Utah and New Mexico. But we still didn’t have a
plan for the other territories that we’re trying to become states. Well, the territories that were up next for becoming
states were Kansas and Nebraska. In 1854, Stephen Douglas proposed a plan for Kansas and Nebraska.
Douglas was a Democratic senator from Illinois. And he was a rather small man– about 5 feet 4 inches tall– but
he had great energy and a lot of persuasive power, which motivated people to nickname him the Little Giant.
Douglas was a big supporter of popular sovereignty. He thought that decisions about the United States should be
made by the people. So in 1854, he argued that popular sovereignty should decide whether Kansas and
Nebraska would be slave or free states. This meant that the people living in Kansas and Nebraska would vote to
decide whether the two territories would allow slavery or not.
Douglas’ proposal was known as the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and this proposal was very controversial because
both Kansas and Nebraska were located above the dividing line of the 1820 Missouri Compromise. In an effort to
push through his proposal, Douglas oversaw the formal repeal of the Missouri Compromise. Northerners didn’t
like Douglas’ proposal because they didn’t want there to be more slave states than free states. They didn’t want
the South to have more political power than the North. And adding to this, Northern farmers didn’t want slave
holders to hoard all of the available land.
In the end the Kansas-Nebraska Act passed, but arguments about the act actually caused a shift in political
parties. The Whig party was divided according to whether they supported or oppose the act. And this division
caused the party to disintegrate. Those who supported the act joined the Democratic Party. And those Whigs who
oppose the act joined a new party that was just emerging. This was the Republican Party.
The Republicans opposed the creation of more slave states in the West. They promised to save the West as a
preserve for white farmers without slaves. And they said that the expansion of slavery was a threat to American
liberty and equality. And this is really where we begin to see a difference in Northern and Southern ideology that
would continue to cause conflict leading up to the Civil War. The difference in ideology lay primarily in Northern
and Southern perceptions of freedom.
By the mid-19th century, most Northerners subscribed to a vision that people and a good society had the
opportunity to succeed if they worked hard enough. And if they didn’t succeed, it was their fault. But slavery
prevented this system from working. Slavery didn’t reward African-Americans for their hard work, and it made it so
that rich planters prevented anyone else in the south from bettering themselves.
In 1854, when the Republican Party formed northern Republicans argued that if slavery was allowed in the West,
it would threaten the entire foundation of American society. So with this in mind, many northern Republicans
believed that it was the government’s responsibility to interfere in order to create opportunities for people to
succeed and this included stopping the spread of slavery. But whereas, white Northerners believed the
government was responsible for creating opportunities for people to exercise freedom and to succeed, white
Southerners understood freedom as the ability to live their lives without interference from anyone.
From this perspective, the role of the government was not to expand opportunity but to make sure that no one
encroached on your world. But, of course, race played a big role in Southern society. So when the Democratic
Party became a party of the South, democratic officials argued then the evil government was one that interfered
with people’s freedom to own slaves. And a good government prevented anyone from messing with what white
men wanted to do.
So returning to Nebraska and Kansas, Stephen Douglas’ act passed in Congress. So in 1855, people in Kansas
prepared to vote on whether their state would be a free or a slave state. But as I told you, people across the
nation had an interest in the fate of the states. They understood the decision as something that would affect
freedom for all Americans. And people were not content to just stand by and watch. So in 1855, hundreds of proslavery
people from Missouri, known as Border Ruffians, streamed into Kansas, claim to be residents and voted.
At the same time, about 1,200 people from New England showed up in Kansas to vote. Many of these New
Englanders came armed with rifles provided to them by the famous abolitionist Henry Ward Beecher. These rifles
were called Beecher’s Bibles because they were sent by Henry Beecher in boxes that were labeled to make it
seem like those boxes were transporting Bibles. So all of these people arrived in Kansas posing as residents in
order to vote. And soon, a small scale civil war broke out in Kansas between pro and anti-slavery groups.
In May of 1856, a pro-slavery mob ransacked the town of Lawrence whose residents supported Kansas as a free
state. In response, an abolitionist named John Brown and his followers dragged five pro-slavery men from their
homes and hacked them to death with broadswords. Pro-slavery settlers responded with more murder, and all of
this violence encouraged people to call the conflict in the troubled territory Bleeding Kansas.
Because of this chaos, it took a while for officials to establish the outcome of the vote for Kansas. Eventually,
though, it was decided that the pro-slavery forces had won. And not only was slavery legalized in Kansas, but it
was made it crime to speak out against slavery or to protest it. The fact that Kansas officials made it a crime to
even speak badly of slavery tells you how high the tension was running.
Now, as I told you, many Americans felt like they had a stake in whether or not slavery expanded into the West,
and it was at this moment that Charles Sumner of Massachusetts criticized the pro-slavery South Carolina senator
Andrew Butler. And in response, Preston Brooks beat Charles Sumner on the Senate floor with his cane, but it
wasn’t just politicians who felt they had a stake in this. As I mentioned before, many Southerners felt that Preston
Brooks was justified in his actions. Wealthy Southerners sent him gold and silver canes so that he could do it
again, and people from all classes in South Carolina re-elected him by a landslide.
On the other hand, it encouraged Northerners who had been on the fence about slavery to come down in support
of the Republicans, the anti-slavery party. So we can see the divide between Northerners and Southerners
growing even more around the topic of slavery, and its expansion in the West. And between 1857 and 1860, a
couple of things happened that influenced an even deeper divide.
Society itself began to split along the lines of slavery. Church denominations split– Baptist, Methodists, and
Presbyterians split into Northern and Southern denominations because of their attitudes about slavery. Southern
literature romanticize life on the plantation. Southern authors portrayed planter gentlemen as superior to money
grubbing Yankees. In the North, authors describe the horrors of slavery.
This was around the time that Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which tells the story of the
Kentucky farmer and his wife who are down on their luck financially. And they decide to raise money by selling two
of their slaves, which results in the heartbreaking separation of the families of those slaves. The Dred Scott case
also influenced people’s views. In March of 1857, the US Supreme Court issued its decision on the case of Dred
Scott v. Sanford.
Dred Scott had been born a slave in Virginia. In 1830, his master took him to Missouri and sold him to an army
surgeon who took him to Illinois and the Wisconsin territory before returning with him to Missouri. Well, slavery
was legal in Virginia and Missouri but not in Illinois or the Wisconsin territory. So Dred Scott went to the Supreme
Court and argued that because he spent time in places where slavery was illegal, this entitled him to his freedom.
Well, the Supreme Court decided that Scott was not entitled to freedom since the federal government had no
power to prohibit or regulate slavery in territories or states. But the court went further than this– they also decided
that no black person free or slave could claim citizenship. This made a lot of Northerners angry. Many Northerners
came to believe that slave owners and pro-slavery politicians had taken over the federal government and were
trying to manipulate the Constitution to undermine American freedom. And this encouraged more people to
support the Republican Party, the anti-slavery party.
In 1858, Republican Abraham Lincoln faced Democrat Stephen Douglas in the Illinois Senate race. If you
remember back to the beginning of this lecture, Stephen Douglas created the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Lincoln was
6 feet 4 inches tall and seemed even taller, because of his habit of wearing a stove pipe hat. He was born to poor
illiterate parents. So Lincoln only received two years of formal schooling. He got most of his education by reading
all the books he could get his hands on.
In 1831, Lincoln moved to Illinois where he worked first as a surveyor then a shopkeeper and then a postmaster.
At the same time, Lincoln began studying law. And in 1834, he was elected to the Illinois House of
Representatives. He started out as a member of the Whig party, but if you remember, the Whig party
disintegrated in 1854 when its members disagreed about the Kansas-Nebraska Act. So Lincoln jumped to the
In 1858, he ran for the office of Senator in Illinois against Stephen Douglas. Lincoln lost but during his campaign
he began to develop a clear stance on slavery in the United States that he would carry with him when he became
President. Lincoln opposed slavery, but he advocated a gradual stance when it came to abolition. He said that he
supported slavery remaining in the South for the time being, but he was opposed to the expansion of slavery in
Now, although Lincoln lost the election for Senator, his campaign put him in the spotlight. So in 1860, Republicans
nominated Lincoln as their presidential candidate. His supporters portrayed him as a self-made man. He was
someone who had risen from frontier poverty to legal and political power. This image emphasized the Republican
ideal of freedom and equal opportunity for all. Lincoln declared his intention to stop the spread of slavery in the
West and to give land in the West to small farmers.
The Democrats, on the other hand, couldn’t agree on a candidate. The Northern Democrats nominated Stephen
Douglas; the Southern Democrats nominated John Brackenridge. In the South, Lincoln’s name wasn’t even put on
the ballot in 10 states. And this decision to leave Lincoln all reflects the very deep divide between Northerners and
Southerners at this point. And as the nation prepared for the election, some Southern officials threatened to
secede if Lincoln, a Republican, won.
Well, in the election of 1860, Lincoln didn’t receive the majority of the popular vote. He received less than 39%, but
this was more than any of the other candidates received. In addition, he won every northern electoral vote. And
consequently, Lincoln won the election, he would be the next president. So Lincoln’s campaign platform was that
slavery could remain in the South but not expand in the West.
But the tension between the North and the South was so high at this point that most Southerners assumed that it
was only a matter of time before he tried to abolish slavery altogether. And they recognized that with Lincoln’s
election, the anti-slavery forces of the United States now had control of the federal government even if the elected
president had not come out and said that he was going to abolish slavery. Consequently, when it was announced
that Lincoln had been elected in November of 1860, Southern states began to secede from the Union.
By February 1861, seven states had seceded and adopted a constitution for the Confederate States of America,
but secession didn’t necessarily mean war. In fact, some of the seceded states hoped to use secession as a
political tool to force Lincoln and his Republican administration to ensure the continuing existence of slavery in the
nation. The new president and his administration also had a choice in the matter. They could let the Union
dissolve and the Confederate States of America stand.
They could engage the south in war. Or they could try to find another compromise. Several members of Congress
started trying to put together another compromise that would enable the nation to avoid a civil war. Senator John
J. Crittenden of Kentucky proposed that the nation reinstate the old Missouri Compromise so that new Western
states below the southern border of Missouri would be slave states. And he requested amendments in the
Constitution that would guarantee the preservation of slavery where it already existed. But Republicans in
Congress would only agree to guaranteeing slavery already existed. They refused to abandon their position that
slavery not be allowed to expand in the West. So compromise between the North and the South failed.
In his inaugural address, Lincoln laid down some basic principles about the situation. He said that one, since the
In his inaugural address, Lincoln laid down some basic principles about the situation. He said that one, since the
Union was older than the Constitution, no state could leave it. Secession was illegal. And two, the government
would continue to hold federal property in the seceded states. Lincoln’s second point referred to Fort Sumter in
South Carolina. When the seven southern states seceded, officials in those states immediately seized federal
property within their borders– forts, arsenals, government offices, et cetera.
But South Carolina did not have sufficient military power to seize Fort Sumter, which is located on an island in the
harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. Sumter was held by a small force under Major Robert Anderson. Major
Anderson was pro-slavery and a former slave owner from Kentucky, but he thought that secession was
treasonous. So he remained loyal to the Union and refused to allow South Carolina officials to take the fort.
Major Anderson held the fort from December of 1860 until April of 1861. In April, Anderson and his troops were
running low on supplies, and they weren’t sure how much longer they could hold out. Lincoln decided to send in
relief expedition to the fort, and he did this under the pretenses of bringing supplies to Major Anderson and his
men. But he had another motive– this was a calculated move.
He told South Carolina officials ahead of time that he was going to send this relief expedition. This wasn’t a secret.
He was giving South Carolina officials a choice. They could either let the relief expedition resupply the fort and,
thus, recognize Lincoln’s authority as president. Or they could attack the ship. And attacking the ship, or Fort
Sumter, would be an act of aggression, which would be enough to start a war. In other words Lincoln was forcing
South Carolina’s hand.
In the end, South Carolina leaders decided that it would be worse to appear cowardly. So they ordered General
Beauregard, Commander of the Confederate forces at Charleston, to take the fort by force if necessary.
Confederate forces bombarding the fort for two days from April 12 through the 13th. On April 14, Major Anderson
surrendered and Lincoln declared war. The call to war encouraged four other southern states to secede, making a
total of 11 seceded states.
Men on both sides immediately signed up to fight. 640,000 men volunteered in the first month in the North. And in
the South, 500,000 men enlisted. Both sides were so convinced that they were fighting the good fight that they
thought this would be a short glorious war, but this would not be a short war with few casualties. The chapter in
your textbook talks about the battles and early strategies of the Civil War, but I want to focus on the people who
fought, how the war came to an end, and how it impacted society as a whole. By late 1862, both sides were
struggling. They were running out of volunteers and money. And consequently, the Civil War gave us the first
American draft and the first income tax.
Both the North and the South used these systems to support their own armies. In addition, both the Union
government and the Confederate government tried to pay for the wall by creating more currency. In August of
1861, the Confederacy issue $1 billion in paper money. In early 1862, the Union printed $450 million in treasury
notes, known as greenbacks because of their color. The Union greenback would eventually become the paper
money that we have today.
On January 1 of 1863, President Lincoln announced a new policy initiative– the Emancipation Proclamation. This
proclamation announced that the slaves of the Confederacy were free, all four million of them. Since the South
had not yet been defeated, the Confederacy of course disagreed that slaves were free. And the Emancipation
Proclamation did not free the slaves of southern states that had not joined the Confederacy, like Delaware,
Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri. But the Emancipation Proclamation represents a change in Lincoln’s policy as
president and a change in the goal of the Civil War.
I mentioned a few minutes ago that in the 1860 election, Lincoln ran on a platform against the expansion of
slavery, not the elimination of it. And for the most part this was the goal of Union leaders in the first part of the Civil
War– to preserve the Union not the complete abolition of slavery. So Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation in 1863
marks a change in his goals. Now, Lincoln and his Republican administration wanted to eliminate slavery.
Lincoln said that he was doing this out of military necessity not racial equality. Lincoln knew that issuing an
Emancipation Proclamation would help the Union gain more soldiers. Slaves who had managed to escape to the
North before and during the war were now officially free, and they joined the Union. It also encouraged other
slaves to leave their masters and join the Union Army. Thousands of slaves walked away from their southern
plantations, and the runaway slaves who joined the Union Army were known as contrabands.
Now, you may ask, how did slaves in the South know about the Emancipation Proclamation? Well, they learned
about it as the Union Army made progress in the South. Wherever the Union armies went, slaves learned about
their freedom and joined the Union armies. About 180,000 former slaves joined between 1863 and 1864. These
former slaves joined the army for a couple reasons. They did so out of vengeance and also to fight for the
freedom of their families.
To be clear, the Union Army did not treat African-Americans well. They were assigned the worst jobs. They dug
graves and cleaned latrines. And until 1864, black soldiers in the Union Army were paid 30% less than white
soldiers. They fought in segregated units, and they died of disease at five times the rate of white soldiers. The
North developed other approaches to winning the war. In 1864, Abraham Lincoln was re-elected and Union
generals agreed that they needed something more effective to bring the war to an end. So they came up with a
new military approach– total war.
Total war meant destroying everything, and it would force civilians to pay a price not just the soldiers. Northern
generals hoped that if Southerners felt the pain of war, they wouldn’t want to do it again. The general who carried
this out was Major General William Tecumseh Sherman. Sherman made his famous march to the sea from
Atlanta to Savannah between November 15 and December 10 of 1864. His troops cut a path 60 miles wide and
300 miles long, and they destroyed everything that came across. Sherman turned the phrase– “war is hell.”
The success of total war encouraged Republicans in Congress and President Lincoln to keep pursuing their goal
of abolishing slavery. So in January of 1865, they pushed through the 13th Amendment, which officially declared
in the Constitution that slavery was illegal. I want to talk now about the people directing this war. Lincoln actually
spent the majority of the war looking for a Chief of Staff capable of orchestrating the Union war effort.
He turned first to general Winfield Scott, who had been a hero in the Mexican-American War, but the Mexican-
American War ended in 1848. And in 1861, Winfield Scott was too old to handle the responsibility. Lincoln then
turned to the younger George B. McClellan, who was energetic and had shown good potential as a commander of
Union armies in the East, but he wasn’t skillful enough to direct and entire army. Not until March of 1864, almost
three years after the war began, did Lincoln finally find a general he liked. This was Ulysses S. Grant. Lincoln and
Grant worked well together. Lincoln gave Grant a relatively free hand, but Grant always submitted his plans to the
president for advance approval.
In the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis was president. And unlike Lincoln, Jefferson Davis was a professionally
trained soldier. Now, this sounds like it would be a good skill for a president to have during a war, but it actually
caused a lot of problems. Davis had trouble giving up control to anyone else. Early in 1862, Davis named Robert
E. Lee as his principal military advisor. But Davis kept interfering with Lee’s actions and commands, so Lee soon
quit and went to command forces in the field. For the next two years, Jefferson Davis planned strategy alone.
In February of 1864, President Davis named General Braxton Bragg as a military advisor, but Bragg never
provided much more than technical advice. In case, you’re curious the Fort Bragg is named for General Braxton
Bragg. In February of 1865, Robert E. Lee agreed to come back and act as chief general. But the war ended on
May 13 of that year, so Lee didn’t have time to actually be effective in this position.
In the lower levels of command, officers on both sides had very similar backgrounds. In the Union and the
Confederacy, professional officers tended to be graduates of the United States Military Academy at West Point
and the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis. Consequently, they often knew each other and were trained
in very similar ways. They were all taught the same classic 18th century models of warfare that the service
academies still taught. The most successful officers were those, who like Grant and Sherman, were able to see
beyond their academic training. For example, Grant was successful because he focused on destroying southern
resources just as much as he thought about battlefield plans.
By the end of the Civil War in May of 1865, 730,000 soldiers and 50,000 civilians had died. This, of course,
included the president who was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth on April 14 of 1865. More soldiers died in the
Civil War than all other wars in American history combined. One quarter of all soldiers who fought in the war died.
The government of the United States was entirely unprepared to deal with this much death. They had no way of
notifying kin, and 41% of all remains were never identified.
While fighting, soldiers often wrote their own death notices and gave them to friends. So that if one of them
survived, they could send it back. So many died as a result of four reasons. The first is disease. 71% of all
casualties were because of disease. The water supplies were contaminated and the camps were crowded, which
lead to diseases like dysentery. There’s also changes in the technology of guns.
In 1861, they had repeating fire guns, which means that you didn’t have to reload each time you fired the gun.
There was also rifling and gun barrels, which made bullets spin. And this spinning made them faster and more
accurate. And they had sealed percussion caps, a.k.a. bullets. Whereas, before you fired a gun by pouring in
gunpowder, packing it down, and firing– all of which took about 90 seconds if you good at it. Now, in 1861, you
just had to put bullets in and shoot.
There was also railroads, which could bring in more guns and cannons and supplies to keep the war going. And
finally, there was a lot of bad medical care. Most doctors were part time blacksmiths and carpenters. And both
sides ran low on doctors and supplies. Doctors reused bandages and instruments. They didn’t wash their hands
after amputations. Surgeons lacked expertise, and they were under pressure to just amputate.
Some organizations formed to create more and better medical care for soldiers, and women played a large role in
this effort. About 3,000 Northern women served as nurses and either the United States Sanitary Commission and
another 17,000 served unofficially as health care related volunteers. But even still, there often weren’t enough
resources, enough time, or enough doctors and nurses to ensure that the wounded were cared for as they should
Now, due to the huge amounts of death and destruction, The Civil War had a profound impact on society in the
United States. First of all, it changed the demographics of society. There we’re now less marriageable men
available, which left a lot of single young women to marry below their social status, to marry later, to marry much
older men, or to become spinsters, just remain single. It changed banking– a single currency was created.
If you remember, Andrew Jackson killed the second bank of the United States and put banking in the hands of
state banks. When the Civil War ended, the federal government regained control of currency. It declared that the
nation would use the currency that the Union had invented during the war, the greenback. And the federal
government demanded that banks always have a certain amount of money on reserve. This meant that banks
didn’t simply close when they ran out of money.
The war also came up with the first income tax and the first modern-style draft. And the earliest development of a
welfare state can be traced to the Civil War. The government created a pension program for widows of soldiers
who died in the war. Political leaders decided that under certain circumstances, the government had an obligation
to provide for people. And on December 18 in 1865, a few months after the war ended, the 13th Amendment
became law. This amendment legally ended slavery and freed all slaves in the United States.
Finally, the war exaggerated regional differences. The North became more hard edged and convinced that society
and war was about survival of the fittest. And, of course, since the Union won, they believed that Northerners were
the fittest. Southern whites celebrated the lost cause, the heroism of war, and veneration of antebellum society.
This contributed to a huge struggle to strengthen ideas about racial superiority in the South, which meant that
relationships between white and black people became even more tortured after the war.
So let’s go back to our questions. Our first question was, what events encouraged the rise of the Republican Party
in the 1850s? The Kansas-Nebraska Act encouraged Whigs who opposed the act to join the anti-slavery
Republican Party. And the violence of Bleeding Kansas encouraged moderates to support the Republicans in their
anti-slavery stance. And then finally, the Dred Scott case supported Republicans claim that an aggressive slave
power had taken over the federal government and was manipulating the Constitution.
We asked how did the Civil War start, and how did people respond to this initiation? Well, the Civil War started in
April of 1861 when Abraham Lincoln tried to resupply Fort Sumter in South Carolina. This action pushed South
Carolina to fire the first shots and hundreds of thousands of men from both the North and the South immediately
signed up to fight. We asked how did the Lincoln’s stance toward slavery changed during the war? From the
beginning of the war up to 1862, Lincoln wanted to preserve the Union.
He intended to allow slavery to continue in the South, but he wanted to stop the expansion of slavery into the
West. But in 1863, Lincoln changed his stance. As a military tactic and part of a broader effort to end the war,
Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation. This decree reflected his shift to the new goal of abolishing slavery
completely. And then finally we asked, what was the outcome of the Civil War, how did it affect society? More men
died in the war than all the other wars in American history combined. This war influenced changes in
demographics, banking, the tax system, how armies were created during wartime, the role of government in
providing welfare, the legal end of slavery through the 13th Amendment, and regional differences between the
North and the South.
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