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‘This is a Collaborative Learning Community assignment.Complete a 750-1,000 word rough draft of your research paper on a controversial topic involving a cultural identifier and the implications for K-12 public education.The final version will be submitted in Topic 7.

Using a minimum of three scholarly journal articles from the last three years complete your paper so that it addresses the following:

Describes the cultural identifiers discussed in the articles.
Summarizes the historical background of the cultural identifiers and associated controversial topic in K-12 education.
Identifies 2-3 arguments presented for and 2-3 arguments against the issue.
Discusses associated injustices arising from the issue, including how teachers and students are affected by the cultural identifiers and associated controversial topic
Explains solutions you recommend implementing to remedy the associated injustices, and why you selected them.
Concludes by identifying where you fall on the cultural competence continuum in relation to the issue, including your commitment to understanding others’ frames of reference (e.g., culture, gender, language, abilities, ways of knowing), in order to reduce personal biases and improve relationships with colleagues, students, and students’ families.’

**Share your rough draft with your CLC. In your CLC, review each paper and provide feedback. Your feedback should include at least two things that are done well, and three areas that need improving. Use the feedback you receive as preparation for and revision of your final assignment.**

Controversial Topic Summary


Cultural Identifier and Controversial issue in regards to K-12 education

The world we live in is not very sensitive to the transgender group. In recent years schools have started to recognize and accept transgender group and make sure that bathrooms are gender neutral. It is important that educators provide the support and safety for all students. This involves making sure that transgender students are not bullied and they are comfortable using locker rooms and bathrooms.

Historical Background in Regards to K-12 Education

The history for LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bi, Transgender, and Queer) is one that does not have a long documented history. In 1969 The Stonewall Riots led to the LGBTQ movement. There are two leaders that stand out as leaders in the movement Sylvia Rae Rivera and Marsha P. Johnson advocated for the movement. In 2003 The National Center for Transgender Equality (NCTE) was formed. This movement petitioned for the transgender rights in Washington. Then in March of 2016, North Carolina legislature made a move against  transgender students and they banned youth from using bathrooms that are gender aligned. The Departments of Justice and Education in May of 2016, stated “ Discriminating against transgender students because of their gender identity violates Title IX” (Parks, 2018).

Arguments For and Against

In recent years, schools have taken steps to make sure that transgender kids are comfortable. The human tights of transgender individuals include the protection against discrimination and harassment, the right to the protection of human rights by laws, and the duty to accommodate against undue hardship and confidentiality of information (Saskatchewan Human Rights commission, 2016). Human rights should be the same for everyone no matter what the feel that their gender is. Everyone has a right to feel comfortable in public places and use bathrooms that they are comfortable using. One argument against transgender bathrooms are the fact that students that use these transgender bathrooms can become targets for bullying. Students need to be taught that a bathroom is a bathroom and they are no defined by the bathroom that they use. As teachers and educators it is important that diverse classroom environment is created. Being understanding and teaching students how to treat each other and not bully anyone is the environment that needs to be created.


Injustices that can arise from transgender bathrooms in schools are that students can become targets and it is important that educators make sure that all students are treated fairly. It does not matter what a person identifies themselves as long as they are treated fairly. These students have enough issues without having the difficulty of being bullied. Not all students are provided adequate support from school staff, as, “more than 40% of trans students said that teaching staff at their school do not know what the word ‘trans’ means” (Russell, 2018).

How Teachers and Students are affected

Teachers and students would be affected by learning and going through the process of trying to understand how to make everyone comfortable. This is done by teachers taking professional development on the topic and researching how to help students. This is then taught to the students. Understanding student needs and helping them through their problems is the best way to get students to treat each other right. Students can be affected negatively by the fact that any student can access the bathroom and this may make students and parents uncomfortable.


Solutions for injustice          

This is a fairly new controversy and the solutions are still in the works. Students are the ones raising their concerns and even coming up with solutions that they are comfortable with. Teachers and parents need to be educated and help support students that are having gender identity issues. The adults in the building need to be able to support or guide the students into the right directions.

Where do you fall on the cultural competence continuum in relation to the issue?

I believe that over time I have moved along the cultural competence continuum on the issue of gender bias. Gender bias was never anything that I would of thought about as a teenager and while I was in high school. So, I would say that I was culturally blind. As I have been through professional development on gender bias, It would stand to reason that I have moved up the continuum to culturally pre-competence. There is always more to learn on the issue, but I believe that it is important that as educators we treat everyone with respect and talk to them about what they want. I thing that everyone has differences or is a little weird as I tell my students and we all should be accepting. Everyone should help build people up, not tear them down. I would encourage my students, colleagues, and family and friends to do the same!











Parks, R., & Straka, R. (2018). Gender pronouns to support identity: creating a campus of difference. Phi Kappa Phi Forum, 98(3), 4-8. Doi:10.3138/utlj.2017-0073

Russell, C. (2018). Homophobic and transphobic bullying dispositive: voices in an educational community. Sociedad e Infancias, 2(0), 211-232. Doi: 10.5209/SOCI.59456

Saskatchewan Human Rights Commission. (2016). Human Rights of Transgender People. Retrieved from

Children laughing, playing, interacting or standardized testing, stay quiet which do you think of when you hear school? I think that our culture has made it acceptable to take learning away from schools but not in the way you would think. Academic learning is at the forefront while play is going extinct. A willingness to learn and grow make the difference between good and great educators. We should stand together to connect cultural differences to showcase a united front, after all we do live in the United States. United we stand, divided we fall.

Controversial Topic Summary

            “A suspension of buisness or procedure often for rest or relaxation”(“recess”, May 16, 2020). Being at school takes up early half of the time a child is awake, why is it they are expected to sit and be quiet that entire time? Realistically we should be giving children time to academically learn while mixing in time to learn positive interaction, physical health and much more from time spent at recess. The break from academic learning is like a palette cleanser to prepare the mind for the lessons to come. As a society we have the opportunity to teach so much as we are with the children of the future majority of their waking hours, so let’s embrace this opportunity with loving dedicated hearts.    

Cultural Identifier and Controversial issue in regards to K-12 education

The cultural identifier associated with recess as part of the school day are physical/mental well-being, body image and social-economic status. Learning is the primary goal for school, this is understandable but when did it become so boring? Play is an equally important aspect of learning for children and for older grades there are many skills that are necessary to become productive members of society. As a society we have the opportunity to teach so much as we are with the children of the future majority of their waking hours, so let’s embrace this opportunity with loving dedicated hearts.    

Historical Background in Regards to K-12 Education

Children used to be responsible for school house learning in the morning and field work after school was released. According to the Superintendent, David Howell, of the Lansing, Michigan in 1885 recess should not even take place during school hours as it took up valuable time that could be used for more important responsibilities(Beard, pg. 20, 2018). This being said farming was the way of living back then and was vigorous work just not fun like recess would be. On the flip side of the coin we have Frederich Froebel who believed that play was crucial to growth in children and described that outdoor activity provides real-world experiences for children to flourish(Ahmetoglu, pg. 359, 2018).

Arguments For and Against

Recess provides an outlet for children to express themselves and ready their mind for upcoming lessons. Students get wiggles and giggles out while forming neurological connections for cognitive learning to be effective(No Fault, 2019). Physical activity provides time to burn calories preventing unhealthy weight and undesirable body image issues. Unhealthy habits are not just skin deep they are usually much more than what meets the eye.

            Recess has become a choice for most states due to the push of No Child Left Behind in 2002(No Fault, 2019). Academic time wins and leaders at the school base their decisions on test scores being where they want them. If the scores are low they take away recess to provide more learning and instruction time.


Brain development requires much more than just what is learned though academic lessons. Connections must be given the opportunity for growth or the connection could possibly never mature into what it is intended(Beard, pg. 27, 2018). Expectations to sit, be respectful, quiet, remember and understand everything they are being taught. All of these with no to no play time or recess. According to studies that have been gathered a staggeringly low number of schools are requiring recess only 11 percent of states(No Fault,2019).

How Teachers and Students are affected

Restless, unfocused students placed with more academic responsibility. Pushback from the school system for improved standardized testing. Defiant behavior from pent up energy. Sluggish interaction, inability to focus on what is important or lack of desire to participate.

Solutions for injustice          

Providing recess monitors specifically for the time when children are at recess. Set aside money for equipment to be inspected per safety standards. Plans should be established for routine and periodic maintenance before the structure is even started(NPPS, 2020). School systems could utilize recess more spread out throughout the day. Offering alternating recess for classes who require more individualized learning could be possible with rotating schedule. Guided recess is possible to prepare children for the instruction that will take place upon return to the classroom.

Where do you fall on the cultural competence continuum in relation to the issue?

I would consider myself to be culturally pre-competent or competent. I accept others for who they are and am willing to learn with an open mind. Intergrading cultural variety into my lessons and classroom is how to ensure we view one another as a person not judge them for their differences(The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center, 2020). Recess time I will encourage the children to interact with peers in ways that are conducive to building positive relationships though play. Children should not have to base who they can interactive with on cultural differences but learning how to form meaningful connections with others. Recess should be a place that encourages exercise which can result in better self-image for students with unavailable options after school depending family’s situation.

United we stand, divided we fall. As educators we should be showing our students how to stand together. Being able to keep an open mind and willingness to learn are key components of being a successful educator. When we keep play as part of our instructional time students can thrive with peers from all different cultural backgrounds. Recess provides lifelong lessons and connections that are not possibly without play.







Ahmetoglu, E. (2018). ResearchGate. The Friedrich Froebel Approach. Retrieved from

Beard, V. (2018). School of Graduate Studies. A Study of the Purpose and Value of Recess in Elementary Schools as Perceived by Teachers and Administrators. Retrieved from

No Fault. (2019). Does Longer Recess Mean Better Grades? Retrieved from

NPPS. (2020). Play Together. Play Smart. Play S.A.F.E.TM. Maintenance Plans. Retrieved from

The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center. (2020). Cultural Competence Continuum. Retrieved from

“recess”. (2020). Merriam-Webster. Retrieved May 16, 2020 from

Transgender Bathrooms in School

We may think that because our society has progressed since the 1950’s, we have come to a point in time where everyone is treated fairly, but this is not true. Currently, we are still seeing social and cultural injustices in many environments including school. This paper will discuss transgender bathrooms in K-12 schools and how this topic affects gender and sexual-orientation.

Cultural Identifier and Controversial issue in regards to K-12 education

Transgender bathrooms create a safe space for students who do not identify as typical male or female. Due to society’s gender norms, we have come to conclusions about who should be allowed to enter bathrooms marked “Women” or “Men”. The conclusions of who should be allowed in each bathroom is also affected by the person’s sexual orientation. For example, someone who looks predominately male, but identifies as female may be rejected from using the female bathroom because gender norms tell us that male looking figures are interested in females, which would mean that it would be inappropriate for the male looking figure to use the female bathroom even though they identify as female and are not sexually attracted to females. Many of these beliefs stem from unprogressive history.

Historical Background in Regards to K-12 Education

Transgender people are people who identify as a different gender than the sex they were assigned at birth (Garcia, 2020). For example, an individual was assigned male at birth, but they have chosen to identify as female. Transgender identity isn’t a “new thing”, it has always existed, but it hasn’t received as much recognition as it has in the last ten years (Garcia, 2020). It was only in the 1960’s that social scientists recognized that there was a difference between sex and gender. One of the main causes for the uproar in representation in the last ten years is due celebrities bringing awareness of the transgender community (Garcia, 2020). Although we as a society have ignored the LGBT plus community until recently, the Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects the transgender community by stating that students may not be discriminated against on the basis of sex or gender. This would include discrimination of transgenders in regard to bathroom bias (Ellis, 2017).

Arguments For and Against

The acceptance of transgender bathrooms should be approved and practiced in order to not discriminate against sex or gender (“Federal appeals court upholds schools policy allowing students to use bathroom matching gender identity”, 2020). Not allowing students to express themselves and identify as whichever sex or gender they choose is unfair treatment. Discriminating against gender identity is just as bad as any other discrimination. Conversely, transgender bathrooms should not be accepted in school setting because of the privacy issues it causes (“Federal appeals court upholds schools policy allowing students to use bathroom matching gender identity”, 2020). It can make students feel as though they are in danger because of the presence of someone who was not born with the same sex they were, especially in such a vulnerable location such as the bathroom (“Federal appeals court upholds schools policy allowing students to use bathroom matching gender identity”, 2020). Gender discrimination is specific to gender given at birth, not gender identity, therefore it is not discriminatory to ask transgenders to use the bathrooms according to the gender they were assigned at birth (“School board appealing decision on transgender bathroom ban”, 2019).


When the school sets a precedent against transgender people using whichever bathroom they choose, it creates an injustice in the school. If transgenders aren’t treated equally by the school administration, the school staff and students will most likely follow in the school administration’s footsteps and begin treating transgenders differently in different aspects. This treatment can cause transgender students to feel discriminated against which can lead to emotional instability (Garcia, 2020).

How Teachers and Students are affected

Transgender bathrooms in schools do not only affect the transgender community, but also the teachers and students. Everyone is entitled to their own beliefs and opinions, which will differ from each individual. Because of diverse opinions, some students or teachers may feel offended by the decision of the school board on transgender bathrooms. Some may even feel uncomfortable or unsafe.

Solutions for injustice          

The most logical solution to the transgender bathroom debate is to have a private restroom for those who don’t want to identify as their birth assigned sex. A private bathroom for those who identify as something other than their born sex will create a safe space for them and will also allow cisgender people to continue using “male” or “female” bathrooms without feeling in danger of sexual abuse (Issitt, 2019). This solution will help avoid psychological stress for all parties involved (Issitt, 2019).

Where do you fall on the cultural competence continuum in relation to the issue?

As a future educator I am committed to achieving social justice in my classroom. In order to achieve this goal, I will continuously seek to better understand other cultures and lifestyles that are unlike my own. An example of actions I can take to provide a safe place for transgender students is to attend workshops dedicated to the support LGBT plus community in educational settings (Adams, 2016).


In order for students to feel safe and confident in their education, we must uphold morals and social justice inside the walls of our school. This can be done by seeking knowledge on different cultures and lifestyles so that they may be treated equally.






















Adams, M., Bell, L. A., Goodman, D. J., & Joshi, K. Y. (2016). 12. In Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (Third ed.). New York, New York: Routledge.

Ellis, E. (2017, August 01). Gender Identity and Discrimination: The Rights of Transgender Students Under Title IX. Retrieved May 31, 2020, from

Issitt, M. L. (2019). Transgender Restroom Use. Salem Press Encyclopedia.

García, J. D., PhD. (2020). Transgender inequality. Salem Press Encyclopedia.

Federal appeals court upholds schools policy allowing students to use bathroom matching gender

identity. (2020). Legal Monitor Worldwide. Retrieved from https://go-gale-|A615517078&v=2.1&it=r&sid=ebsco

(2019). School Board Appealing Decision on Transgender Bathroom Ban. Retrieved from

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